【もう迷わない!】形容詞 「〜ed」と「〜ing」の違いと使いを解説【例文付き】

ケンジントン英会話ブログ:形容詞 「〜ed」と「〜ing」の違いと使い方【例文付き】






・I’m tired.

・I’m bored.

・I’m obsessed with cats.

・I’m scared of spiders.

これらの形容詞にある共通点は「ed」 で終わることと、その時の感情を表現しているということです。





・My friend is interesting.

・This movie is boring.

・That painting is depressing.

・Those dogs are frightening.



私の文章が「boring (つまらない)」と思うなら、それは私の文章に対するあなたの意見を表明しています。そして、私の文章力を向上させる必要があるというサインですね。

いつものように、これらのルールには例外があり、例えば「silly (愚か)」は「ing」はつきません。




・The movie was exciting and I was excited the whole time.

・I was shocked to see him perform such a shocking action.

・I was really bored yesterday, so I listened to some music, but the music was super boring.



[English version]

The -ed and -ing of Adjectives: How Do They Work?

A recurring question in English lessons is the one regarding adjectives – specifically, the -ed and -ing. How do they work and what’s the difference? It can be confusing for beginner and intermediate students, because there are not only a huge amount of adjectives, but in which context do we use them?

Worry not, because this blog post should give you some idea how they function with some practical examples, too.

The Feeling of -ed

When we use -ed adjectives, we are always referring to the feeling or emotion that we have regarding a situation. It’s specifically about how we feel in our body and mind. For example:

–       I’m tired.

–       I’m bored.

–       I’m obsessed with cats.

–       I’m scared of spiders.

The common point behind all the adjectives above are that they end in -ed and are designed to express your emotion at the time. If you are “scared”, it means that you feel fear.

There are some exceptions to this rule, with things such as “angry” and “sad” being used to express feeling without -ed, but these aren’t common and you don’t have to worry about them much. Focus on -ed for feeling!

The Expressive -ing

When we use -ing to end an adjective, we are expressing our opinion about something. It is what we think about things outside of ourselves. For example:

–       My friend is interesting.

–       This movie is boring.

–       That painting is depressing.

–       Those dogs are frightening.

The above adjectives all end in -ing, and are expressing what you think about something outside of yourself. A great way to think about -ed and -ing is ed is about what’s inside you, -ing is about thoughts about the world. If you think my writing is “boring”, then that’s your opinion.. and a sign that I need to improve my writing skills.

As usual, there are exceptions to these rules: something can be “silly”, and it doesn’t use -ing. Remember to keep it simple though: if you see the -ing, it’s opinion.

Putting Them Together

Finally, let’s write up some examples of them together in sentences:

–       “The movie was exciting and I was excited the whole time.”

–       “I was shocked to see him perform such a shocking action.”

–       “I was really bored yesterday, so I listened to some music, but the music was super boring.”

Hopefully the above gives you some good examples at how these adjective rules work. Try to write some of your own as an exercise to practice it, too, and feel free to use the above as reference.

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